Barret’s esophagus is the histopathological displacement of the mucosa at the lower end of the esophagus with specialized intestinal metaplasia tissue. This is a result of reflux.
Traditionally, esophagectomy was performed in Barret’s esophagus cases with high-grade dysplasia or intra-mucosal cancer, while endoscopic follow-up was recommended in cases with low-grade dysplasia or non-dysplastic Barret’s esophagus.
Less invasive endoscopic treatments have been developed as both of these methods have their own disadvantages. Esophagectomy surgery had disadvantages such as high morbidity and mortality, and intermittent endoscopic scans had disadvantages such as skipping cancer foci or inability to detect or detect cancer development in the interim.
The radiofrequency ablation method for Barret’s esophagus is a promising endoscopic method. Primarily, circular ablation is performed, and then the remaining tissue is incised, secondarily, with special devices through the endoscope.
Compared to photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation therapy, this method does not show any residual Barret’s esophageal mucosa buried. In the first two methods, buried Barret’s esophagus foci can remain under the mucosa called “Burried Barret’s esophagus”.
Indications for radiofrequency ablation in Barret’s esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation can be performed after endoscopic mucosal resection or after the visible lesion has been treated with endoscopic mucosal resection in cases of Barret’s esophagus with intra-mucosal carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia.
Radiofrequency ablation alone is not recommended. If there is submucosal involvement in the examination of the tissue taken after endoscopic mucosal resection, they may spread to the peripheral lymph nodes at a rate of 15-30%, these cases should be submitted to surgery.
On the other hand, only cases with intra mucosal carcinoma are suitable candidates for radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation can be applied in these patients.