What is Colon Cancer? Bowel Cancer Treatment

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Cancer of the large intestine or colon is among the most common cancers in the world, occurring in approximately one in every 2,000 people.

kolon kanseri ameliyatı

It is most common in people over the age of 50 and does not differ in gender. These cancers develop by the inappropriate (anarchic) ​​proliferation of certain cells. These tumors can be benign (often polyps) and malignant (cancer).

The small intestine is about 4-6 meters long, while the large intestine is about 1.5 meters long. The large intestine is the organ where water and beneficial nutrients are absorbed.

In the last 15 years, with the increase in screening tests, colon cancers are detected at an early stage and mortality rates are decreasing. 70% of colon cancers are located in the left half of the large intestine, 25% in the right half and 5% in both halves (synchronous tumors).

According to the statistics of the American Cancer Institute in 2006, colon cancer; It is the third type of cancer after prostate cancer and lung cancer in men and the third after breast cancer and lung cancer in women, and the lifetime risk of developing colon and rectum cancer is 5% on average. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, over 1 million new intestinal cancer cases were detected worldwide in 2008.

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What Does Synchronous and Metachronous Colon Cancer Mean?

The detection of cancer in two different regions of the large intestine simultaneously is called “synchronous bowel cancer” and such tumors are encountered at a rate of 2-12%. A typical example of this is simultaneous cancer in both the right half of the large intestine and the rectum region.

Cancer in the large intestine, at different times and in different regions, is called “metachronous bowel cancer”. An appropriate example is the detection of cancer in the right half of the large intestine five years later in a patient undergoing treatment for rectal cancer. It is a different situation if bowel cancer spreads or metastasizes to the liver.

What is Rectal Cancer?

Cancers that occur in the colon, which is the longest part of the large intestine, are called colon cancer and cancers that occur in the last part of the large intestine, close to the anus, are called rectal cancer.

Does Colon Cancer Develop İn A Short Time?

kolon kanseri neden olur The development of large intestine or colon cancers often takes 3-5 years, and 60% of them develop from benign tumors called polyps in the intestine or from some inflammatory diseases of the large intestine such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Regular colonoscopy examinations have a great role in preventing intestinal (colon) cancer developing especially on the basis of polyps. These tumors can spread or spread to nearby lymphatic vessels, veins, adjacent organs such as liver, bone, prostate, bladder or uterus. 95% of colon cancers are in the adenocarcinoma group.

Who İs İn the Risk Group For Colon Cancer?

Age: People over 50
Familial: The risk of colon cancer increases 1.8 times in first degree relatives in the family, people with colon cancer
Familial polyposis disease: familial adenomatosis polyposis – FAP, Lynch syndrome (HNPCC or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) cases have uterine cancer or ovarian cancer in addition to bowel cancer.
Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome have a 20% lifetime risk of developing bowel cancer.
People on a high-fat and calorie (especially animal fat) diet
Nutrition with a low fiber diet: 20-35 grams of fiber should be consumed per day in a healthy diet. Bingham et al. In the study, it was found that the risk of bowel cancer increased in those who consumed less than 17 g of fiber per day.
Red meat: With regular consumption of red meat every day, the risk of colon cancer increases 1.5 times
People with large bowel polyps or cancer
Women with a history of ovarian, uterine, or breast cancer
Inflammatory bowel disease: In the presence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the risk of colon cancer increases 2-3 times in the presence of inflammatory bowel disease for more than 10 years. Eaden et al. In the meta-analysis they examined 114 scientific studies on ulcerative colitis involving 54,478 patients; It has been reported that the risk of bowel cancer develops at the rate of 2% at the end of 10 years, 8% at the end of 20 years and 18% at the end of 30 years. In contrast, Bernstein et al. When they examined 2,672 ulcerative colitis patients, they determined the risk of developing bowel cancer as 0.16% and the risk of developing rectal cancer as 0.06%.
Obesity: being overweight and not doing sports increases the risk of colon cancer 1.5-2 times. It has been determined that obesity, which is a disease of our age, has increased from 20% to 30% in the 60-65 age group in the last 10 years in European countries.
Diabetes: Increases the risk by 40%, and insulin resistance also increases the risk.
Cigarette consumption
Alcohol: Vogel et al. In the study, it was determined that the risk of colon cancer increased 1.5 times with regular consumption of 10 grams of alcohol per day.
Working the night shift for a long time
Despite all these data, no risk factors have been identified in 75% of people who develop bowel (colon) cancer and rectal cancer.

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Who İs İn the Low-Risk Group For Colon Cancer?

  • No personal or family history of bowel cancer
  • No history of bowel cancer in first-degree relatives
  • A first-degree relative with a history of bowel cancer after age 45
  • This group has twice the risk of people who are not at risk.
  • Persons in this group are recommended stool occult blood test and colonoscopy.

Who İs İn the Moderate Risk Group for Colon Cancer?

  • History of bowel cancer in a first-degree relative before age 45
  • Two of the first-degree relatives have a history of bowel cancer, regardless of age
  • This group has six times the risk compared to people who are not at risk.
  • People in this group are recommended to undergo colonoscopy at the age of 35-40 and are repeated around the age of 55.

Who İs İn The High-Risk Group For Colon Cancer?

  • A family member having polyposis disease (familial adenomatosis polyposis – FAP)
  • Having a family member with HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or Lynch syndrome)
  • Three or more first- and second-degree relatives with hereditary bowel cancer People in this group are at risk of 50%.

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