What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Symptoms and Treatment

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with changes in defecation habits, feeling of bloating in the abdomen, gas and abdominal pain. It is also known by names such as spastic colon, irritable colon, and mucous colitis.

Since the word colitis means inflammation of the large intestine, it is not suitable for IBS. Although it varies according to countries, its incidence varies between 5-25%.

While IBS constitutes up to 15% of patients admitted to general internal medicine outpatient clinics, this rate can increase up to 40% in gastroenterology outpatient clinics. It is more common in women than men (1/2).

irritable huzursuz bağırsak sendromu tedavisi

Irritable bowel syndrome, medically known as irritable bowel syndrome, previously the most common name, spastic colon disease is a psychosomatic disease. Patients usually have abdominal bloating, pain and defecation disorder.

Swelling and abdominal pain in patients usually disappear after defecating or passing gas, and most of these complaints are caused by stress. There are 3 types.

Abdominal pain and bloating are always present in patients. In some of the patients, the patient is constantly constipated. In the other part, the patient has constant diarrhea. In the last type, there is occasional diarrhea and occasional constipation.

There are many findings outside of the intestine that accompany irritable bowel syndrome, that is, irritable bowel syndrome. One of them is sleep disorder. Patients cannot fall asleep easily or feel very tired when they wake up in the morning.

They cannot empty their bladders easily. Even after urinating, they feel as if they have some urine left. They experience tension-type headaches a lot.

Female patients often feel severe groin pain in their monthly discomfort. It is not just a disease that concerns the large intestines, it is actually a multisystem disease. It has treatment. However, the possibility of re-occurrence of the disease with stress is very high.

What Causes Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Although IBS is considered mainly as a functional disease of the large intestine, there is evidence that other parts of the digestive system are also affected in this disease.

The functions of the large intestine (contraction of the intestines, movement of the contents in the intestine, secretion and absorption functions of the intestine, etc.) are under the influence of the intestinal nervous system, central nervous system and various receptors and hormones located in the intestinal wall and forming a very rich network.

irritable huzursuz bağırsak sendromu

The movements of the intestines, their sensitivity and the degree of perception of the stimuli from the intestines are regulated by this nervous and hormonal system. It is thought that some changes occur in these regulatory systems in IBS, both at the level of the central nervous system and the intestines, and various factors such as stress, menstrual cycle, cold, infections, foods, etc. stimulate the emergence of these changes.

It has been shown that there is an increase in the perception of stimuli from the intestines in people with IBS and that the intestines respond to these stimuli with excessive contraction. Why the disease progresses with constipation in some people and with diarrhea or variable bowel habits in others is still not fully known, it is believed that some changes in the level of receptors in the intestines may cause this.

In recent years, it has been tried to establish a relationship between ischemic diseases of the intestines (insufficiency of blood flow in the vessels feeding the intestines) and IBS.

What Are the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Irritable bowel syndrome changes in defecation habits may be in the form of constant constipation, constant diarrhea or their irregular changes. It is the form in which constipation is in the foreground and rarely accompanied by temporary diarrhea periods.

In a normal person, the number of defecations is considered normal and painless, from at least 3 times a week to a maximum of 2 or 3 times a day. Pain in the lower part of the abdomen with the feeling of defecation and pain after defecation, having to strain excessively during defecation, not being able to do it when you go to the toilet even though you are going to make a defecation, or to do it with difficulty, feeling of not being able to empty completely after defecation, defecating in small pieces such as goat feces The main symptoms of IBS are the appearance of mucus in the stool, the soiling of the underwear with a slimy discharge without defecation.

Some of the patients may say that they sometimes have to intervene with their fingers to remove their stools.

In some patients, stress and learning that a close relative or friend has bowel cancer can initiate complaints. Staying in the cold for a long time, especially dry legumes, bulgur, etc. Complaints may flare up after consumption of food and coffee and cola drinks.

Sometimes, an IBD-like picture may occur after intestinal infections, and even if the infection is treated, the symptoms may persist for months. In some patients, the complaints may be severe enough to affect social activity and work life.

Lactose intolerance* (gas, diarrhea and abdominal pain when drinking milk) is more common in intestinal syndrome than in the normal population, and consumption of milk and dairy foods may increase complaints.

In practice, there are some criteria used in the diagnosis of IBS, called the Rome criteria. One or more of these criteria may fit your complaints, but you should definitely consult your doctor for a definitive diagnosis.

  • Immediate feeling of defecation with abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain relief and relief after defecation
  • Feeling of incomplete ejaculation after defecation (Sometimes with finger
    helping stool pass)
  • Change in defecation habits in the form of constipation and diarrhea
  • Stress during defecation
  • Defecation in small pieces
  • Mixed defecation with mucus (slimy discharge)
  • Music discharge from the rectum

 

How Is IBS Treated?

irritable huzursuz bağırsak sendromu nasıl geçer

In Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a relationship based on mutual trust should be established between the patient and the physician and the patient should be informed that the disease is a functional disease.

Dietary changes in some of the patients with IBS may reduce the complaints. The patient and the physician can decide together to remove the foods that are thought to initiate the complaints from the daily diet.

Since lactose intolerance is common in patients with IBS, consumption of milk and dairy foods may initiate complaints, and yogurt may be recommended instead of milk as a source of calcium and protein in these patients.

Regular consumption of probiotic or prebiotic-containing yoghurts, which are increasing in number in the market, can provide relief in some IBS patients in the form of regularization of defecation and reduction of bloating.

In IBS, where constipation is at the forefront, taking plenty of water, consuming fibrous foods, dried fruits and bran bread, and exercising regularly can reduce the complaints.

In cases where changes in diet are insufficient, medications that your doctor will recommend may need to be added to the treatment.
There is no standard drug treatment used when treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome and different drug treatments or combinations may be required for each patient. Pharmacological agents that can be used in the treatment constitute a wide spectrum ranging from drugs believed to regulate bowel movements (spasmodes, prokinetics, etc.) to antidepressants.

(*) Lactose is a sugar found in milk. Normally, the human small intestine contains the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose. When this enzyme is deficient, abdominal pain, gas and diarrhea occur as a result of lactose remaining in the intestines without being absorbed.

This condition is called lactose intolerance. About 10-15% of people are lactose intolerant. The incidence of lactose intolerance has increased in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and this rate is around 60%. Sometimes, temporary lactose intolerance may occur after intestinal infections.

Lactose intolerance is generally mild to moderate, and patients generally state that they can drink up to a glass of milk a day without any obvious complaints. (See lactose intolerance)

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