Helicobacter Pylori Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors

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Helicobacter pylori, is a rod-shaped organism, 0.6×3.5 microns in size, very mobile and slow to reproduce.

How Is Helicobacter Pylori Treatment?

It was observed that the materials taken by biopsy were in the form of a spiral in the examinations made without waiting, and in the form of a spherical in the examinations made after waiting.

In general, it can be said that 70 out of every 100 people are infected with helicobacter pylori. The incidence of infection is 10-50% in developed countries and around 80% in developing countries.

The most important determinant of this situation is socioeconomic differences. High standard of living, higher education level and better sanitation ensure that the incidence of infection is low.

In developing countries, the infection is typically acquired in childhood and, as it is life-long, the long-term consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection occur in a large proportion of the elderly.

Although the path of transmission of the microorganism is not known exactly, it is thought that it is transmitted between people by fecal-oral or mouth-to-oral routes (saliva, saliva, etc.).

Studies conducted on families who do not have any complaints in terms of Helicobacter pylori infection have shown that in the presence of H. pylori infection in one of the family members, the probability of their children and spouse to be infected is around 40% and 70%, respectively, while these rates are quite low (5% and 5%, respectively) in the absence of H. pylori infection in the individual. 10) has been demonstrated.

I think Helicobacter pylori is an exaggerated microbe from what I have seen in my own daily practice. Helicobacter pylori is a microbe that causes gastritis in the stomach, but in our society, approximately 80% of the population over the age of 60 has Helicobacter pylori infection.

In young adults, we can easily hide 40-60% helicobacter positivity today, but not every helicobacter pylori infection causes complaints in the patient. There are some conditions for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

If the patient has ulcers in the stomach or the duodenum, if the patient has had previous surgery for gastric cancer and is positive for helicobacter pylori, if there is gastric lymphoma, if the patient has had bleeding due to ulcers or if he will use a drug such as aspirin, rheumatism medicine for a long time, helicobacteria eradication of pylori is eliminated by antibiotic therapy.

Not every abdominal pain, every bloating, every indigestion is due to Helicobacter pylori.

What Factors Increase The Risk Of Infection?

  • Born in developing countries
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Large families and crowded living conditions
  • Unhealthy living conditions
  • Polluted food and water consumption
  • Exposure to stomach contents of persons carrying the organism
  • (Transition between healthcare professionals and spouses)

Associated Diseases

Helicobacter pylori;

  • It can cause various stomach diseases, especially gastritis and ulcer;
  • Development of stomach and duodenal ulcers (17-20%)
  • Development of stomach cancer (1-3%)
  • Development of gastric lymph cancer (1-3%)
  • Chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal meteplasia (Intestinal metaplasia is the appearance of intestinal-type mucosal islets in the gastric mucosa and requires close follow-up because some types
  • show transformation into cancer)
  • Dyspeptic complaints such as pain, gas, bloating, nausea, feeling of fullness after meals, belching, bad breath.
 

Tests Used In The Diagnosis Of Helicobacter Pylori

helikobakter pilori tanısı

The presence of helicobacter pylori in the stomach is determined by examining the tissue sample (biopsy) to be taken during edoscopy in patients who need endoscopy (Gastroscopy) by using the rapid urease test (CLO test) or by performing histopathological examination.

If endoscopy is not required, another method, the Urea-Breath Test, or serological tests to detect antibodies against this bacterium in the blood can be applied.

In order for the urea-breath test to be performed, it is necessary not to have used antibiotics or a drug to reduce stomach acid in the last 1 month.

Detection of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in the blood only indicates that the person has encountered this bacterium at any time, it does not provide information about whether the bacterium has been treated or not.

Apart from these, the presence of H.pylori can be investigated by detecting Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool and antibodies against H.pylori in saliva and urine. The different tests used for this purpose are shown in the table below.

Helicobacter Pylori Treatment

When the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach is demonstrated by any method, it would be an appropriate approach to treat the infection because of the possible diseases it may cause.

The basis of the treatment consists of a drug that suppresses gastric acid secretion and the use of at least two types of antibiotics together for 7 or 14 days.

Since the pH range, in which bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics, is between 6 and 8, gastric acid secretion should be effectively suppressed during treatment.

No diet is required for treatment. In patients who cannot achieve eradication despite appropriate treatment, different treatment courses should be applied.

Your gastroenterologist will help you with this.

Conditions where Helicobacter Pylori treatment is definitely recommended:

helikobakter pilori tedavisi

  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Maltoma
  • Atrophic gastritis
  • Presence of infection in the remaining stomach after gastric cancer surgeries
  • Patients with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer
  • Due to the patient’s own request
  • ITP (Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura)
  • Conditions where Helicobacter Pylori treatment is recommended:
  • Functional dyspepsia with positive Helicobacter pylori (Pain, gas, bloating, nausea, postprandial fullness, belching, etc.)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease requiring long-term medication
  • Situations where long-term use of aspirin and/or non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs is required
  • Iron deficiency anemia of undetermined cause
  • Functional dyspepsia (NUD)
  • Long-term PPI therapy
  • Long-term NSAID therapy
  • Halitosis (halitosis)

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